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water softening | Definition, Process, & Facts | Britannica

25-08-2021· Water softening, the process of removing the dissolved calcium and magnesium salts that cause hardness in water. Softened water does not form insoluble scale or precipitates in pipes and tanks or interfere with cleaners such as soap. It is thus indispensable in many industries and is common in homes with hard water.

Water-softening systems - Big Chemical Encyclopedia

Water-softening systems Similarly, installed costs of water-softening systems can be correlated in United States dollars (M S = 1000) as follows ... Ion exchange is similar to adsorption in that both involve affinity between a species i in solution and functional groups on a substrate surface ion exchange may even be considered as a particular case of adsorption, where coulombic affinity is ...

Nanofiltration water softening - Big Chemical Encyclopedia

Nanofiltration water softening Micro-, ultra-, and nano-filtration can separate smaller particles using media with defined porous sizes (i.e., 10 1—1 pm in microfiltration, 10 2—10 pm in ultrafiltration, and 10 3— 10 2 pm in nanofiltration). Residual colloidal and suspended solids can be removed by microfiltration. Selected salts, most organic compounds, bacteria, protozoan cysts ...

Softening water - Big Chemical Encyclopedia

Softening water Hard water can be softened by several methods which vary in efficiency and cost. Distillation will result in water free of dissolved salts and nonvolatile organic substances. This can be carried out using solar energy, and many devices have been described whereby seawater can be converted into potable drinking water, usually on a small scale.

Water continued softening - Big Chemical Encyclopedia

Water continued softening Succinamide. NHoCOCH2 CH2CONH2. (Method 2(a)). Add 5 ml. (5 8 g.) of dimethyl succinate to a mixture of 50 ml. of water and 25 ml. of concentrated [dy o-88o) aqueous ammonia solution in a 150 ml. conical flask.Cork the flask and shake the contents the dimethyl succinate rapidly dissolves to give a clear solution.Allow the solution to stand after about i hour the ...


In the United States, hard water is mostly found in the mid western and western states. It ranges between 120-250 mg/L as CaCO 3 or beyond 250 mg/L as CaCO 3 for very hard waters. The acceptable water hardness range is between 60-120 mg/L as CaCO 3. A water softening experiment was conducted in replicate to observe the changes in parameters

Water-softening methods - Big Chemical Encyclopedia

Water-softening methods Condensate drainage devices, 70 148 Condensate polishing ion exchange in, 74 417 in steam-generating systems, 23 227 water softening method for, 26 122-123 Condensate return, in heat pipes, 73 226 Condensate return systems, 70 147-148 Condensate systems, in industrial water treatment, 26 136-137 Condensation, 9 281-282.See also Polycondensation control of VOCs …

Water softening - Wikipedia

Water softening is the removal of calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water.The resulting soft water requires less soap for the same cleaning effort, as soap is not wasted bonding with calcium ions. Soft water also extends the lifetime of plumbing by reducing or eliminating scale build-up in pipes and fittings. Water softening is usually achieved using lime softening …

Softening, of water - Big Chemical Encyclopedia

Softening, of water It is not always necessary for the resin to be in the hydrogen form for adsorption of cations, especiaHy if a change in the pH of the Hquid phase is to be avoided (see also Hydrogen-ION activity). Eor example, softening of water, both in homes and at industrial sites, is practiced by using the resin in the form.[Pg.371]

Surface water softening - Big Chemical Encyclopedia

Surface water softening This section describes only the influence produced on the flotation process by two main surfactant types—ers and collectors. Meanwhile, there is a complex of compoimds used in real processes pH adjustment, hydrophilisation of surfaces, water softeners, high-molecular compounds (flocculating as well as deflocculating agents), and others.

Ion exchangers water softening - Big Chemical Encyclopedia

Ion exchangers water softening Sales of salt for regenerating ion-exchange water softeners have grown steadily in the United States, particularly in terms of revenues.The U.S. salt industry is mature and sales are not likely to increase rapidly.

water softening | Definition, Process, & Facts | Britannica

25-08-2021· Ion exchange is a common industrial method of water softening. It is accomplished by passing the water through columns of a natural or synthetic resin that trades sodium ions for calcium and magnesium ions. After the column has been in use for some time, calcium and magnesium begin to appear in the water leaving the column.

Water, softening effect - Big Chemical Encyclopedia

Water softener manufacturers remind us of the many undesirable effects produced by hard water. Besides enhancing the likelihood of harmful scale deposits in plumbing, water heaters, and dishwashers, hard water also has been associated with bathtub scum, deposits on laundry, scale on glasses and dishes, scratchy skin, and unmanageable hair.